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【英文】欧洲对外关系委员会报告:中美两极竞争中如何捍卫欧洲的经济主权:抵制经济胁迫的新方法(50页)

英文研究报告 2020年11月26日 06:36 3 管理员

Europeans have been among the biggest advocates and beneficiaries of a rules-based, open economic  order. By promoting the idea of free and fair trade, EU governments and institutions hoped that  globalisation would benefit everybody. But, even before covid-19, this order was coming under enormous pressure. The most important  structural feature of our world today is not multilateralism, but rather a bipolar competition between  China and America – Europe’s two most important economic partners. As a result, the nature of  globalisation is changing. Because neither China or America wants a conventional war, their most  powerful weapon is to manipulate the architecture of globalisation.  Both China and the United States are merging geo-economics with geopolitics. The Chinese are using  investments strategically, manipulating markets through state aid and undermining the European  Union’s voice on the world stage by deliberately weakening multilateral institutions and undercutting  the EU in third countries. But America, too, is increasingly politicising things we once thought of as  global public goods: the US financial system, SWIFT, the World Trade Organization, the internet, and  the International Monetary Fund. 

Rather than being a barrier to conflict, interdependence will  increasingly be weaponised. There is a real danger that Europeans will be squeezed in the middle of the Sino-American  competition. Europeans are likely to increasingly face extraterritorial sanctions, forced sensitive data  transfers, and extraterritorial export controls that distort the European market and global competition.  The Chinese government has tried to pressure European states into making political concessions by  threatening to withhold medical supplies during the pandemic. Donald Trump has undermined  Europe’s diplomacy on Iran – and international law – with secondary sanctions on European  companies. An already heterogeneous global monetary and financial system is now confronted with a  real risk of fragmentation, if not an eventual break-up.  If we want to prevent the rules-based order from fragmenting, we need to build European strategic  sovereignty and better integrate economic and geopolitical policy. However, to do this, Europeans will  need to overcome some barriers in our thinking, our capabilities, and our institutions.

【英文】欧洲对外关系委员会报告:中美两极竞争中如何捍卫欧洲的经济主权:抵制经济胁迫的新方法(50页)

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