Ending the COVID-19 pandemic through global cooperation is our first priori...
2021-06-23 4 ENGLISH REPORTS
Hybrid warfare generally assumes that military instruments of national power will be utilized in some form or fashion.17 As Frank G. Hofman maintains, “instead of separate challengers with fundamentally diferent approaches (conventional, irregular, or terrorist), we can expect to face competitors who will employ all forms of war and tactics, perhaps simultaneously.”18 By contrast, “political warfare” refers to the exercise of actions short of war that are part of a coercive statecraft strategy. The phrase was coined by George Kennan who wrote: “Political warfare is the logical application of Clausewitz’s doctrine in time of peace. In broadest defnition, political warfare is the employment of all the means at a nation’s command, short of war, to achieve its national objectives. Such operations are both overt and covert.
They range from such overt actions as political alliances, economic measures… and ‘white’ propaganda to such covert operations as clandestine support of ‘friendly’ foreign elements, ‘black’ psychological warfare and even encouragement of underground resistance in hostile states.”The concept of conducting synchronized activities short of overt warfare to achieve strategic ends has subsequently been expressed by policy makers through terms such as “gray zone competition” and “comprehensive coercion.”20 Hybrid warfare is conceptually distinct but related to political warfare and authoritarian coercion as it describes the application of these hostile activities and strategies across the confict spectrum during times of war and peace.21 Political warfare refers to these coercive activities outside the context of overt hostilities. In the strategic calculations of both Moscow and Beijing, political warfare appears to be a critical—if not decisive—line of efort in hybrid warfare campaigns.
标签： ENGLISH REPORTS