Today, U.S. policy is focused on retrenchment and consolidation—defned by a...
2021-08-26 2 ENGLISH REPORTS
Ziranj and Chakhansur prevents the move into desert areas in other parts of the province.32 Historically, reports of any government efforts to prohibit and eradicate opium poppy cultivation in Nimroz have been exaggerated and unverified.33 Cannabis is not grown in the province. With relatively low levels of poppy cultivation in Nimroz in 2020, and farmgate prices of $87.5 per kg, our calculations indicate that the opium poppy crop would have had a gross value of $11.4 million in 2020 (see Annex). Of much greater importance to the drugs economy of Nimroz than opium production has been an 32 Ramin (2015) ‘Ministry in quest of funds for completing vital dam project’, Pajhwok Afghan News, 29 November (www.pajhwok.com/en/2015/11/29/ministry-quest-funds-completing-vital-dam-project). 33 SIGAR (2018) ‘Counternarcotics: lesson from the US experience in Afghanistan’, pp. 88–91. Arlington, VA: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (www.sigar.mil/pdf/lessonslearned/SIGAR-18-52-LL.pdf). 34 Rempfer, K. (2018) ‘Airstrikes against Taliban drugs labs extend to western Afghanistan’, Military Times. 10 April (www.militarytimes.com/flashpoints/2018/04/10/airstrikes-against-taliban-drug-labs-extend-to-western-afghanistan);
Khaama (2019) ‘NDS special force storm Taliban hideout, prison and drug lab in Nimroz province’, 14 March (www.khaama.com/ndsspecial-force-storm-taliban-hideout-prison-and-drug-lab-in-nimroz-province-03483). 35 BBC News (2019) ‘US meth lab strikes in Afghanistan killed at least 30 civilians, says UN’, 9 October (www.bbc.co.uk/news/ world-asia-49984804); Mansfield, D. and Soderholm, A. (2019) ‘New airstrikes obscure a dramatic development in the Afghan drugs industry – the proliferation of low cost methamphetamine’. London School of Economics (LSE) blog, 28 May (https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2019/05/28/new-us-airstrikes-obscure-a-dramatic-development-in-the-afghan-drugsindustry-the-proliferation-of-low-cost-methamphetamine). increasing concentration of drugs processing in the district of Khashrud. Closely linked to the growth of both heroin and methamphetamine production in neighbouring Bakwa (Farah province), the area has rapidly become a market hub for both the production and trade of illegal drugs – so much so that both Khashrud and Bakwa were targets for the USFOR-A aerial bombing of heroin labs in April 2018,34 and of methamphetamine labs in May 2019.
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