China appears to be building a force specifically intended to be able to &n...
2021-09-01 2 ENGLISH REPORTS
Green bonds fund projects that have positive environmental or climate benefts. The global volume of green bonds and loan issuance rose sharply by over 50% from $171 billion in 2018 to $258 billion in 2019, buoyed by strong interest from both investors and issuers. ASEAN green bonds represented only 3% of the global total in 2019. ASEAN’s issuance of green bonds almost doubled, reaching $8.1 billion in 2019 from $4.1 billion in 2018, supported by new regulations and guidelines. In comparison, US green bonds reached $52.9 billion in 2019, 6.5 times the size of ASEAN’s green bond market. Twothirds of the proceeds are allocated to the Energy and Infrastructure sectors. Singapore contributed to 55% of the ASEAN green debt issuance in 2019, up from 29% in 2018, cementing its position as the region’s leader in green bonds.
Health care expenditure in ASEAN accounts for 4% of the region’s total GDP, lower than the global average of 10%, and relies heavily on public funding. Singapore has the highest healthcare expenditures per capita at $2,823 but also leads ASEAN in preventative care measures such as access to healthcare providers, sanitation, and vaccines. One-third of the 11 million global medical consumers travel to ASEAN annually. Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand are major medical tourism destinations, with 40% of healthcare revenue in those countries coming from medical tourism. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for further investment in healthcare in the region, including in biotechnology, telehealth, biopharmaceuticals, medtech, and diagnostic medicine. Universal healthcare is also being adopted by ASEAN member states. Indonesia has one of the world’s largest free healthcare programs, covering approximately 180 million people.
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