2023-10-17 20 英文报告下载
Congress passed and the President signed into law the National Quantum Initiative Act (NQI Act; P.L. 115-368; codified at 15 U.S.C. §§8801 et seq.) in December 2018 to accelerate quantum research and development (R&D) for the economic and national security of the United States and ensure the continued U.S. leadership in quantum information science and its technology applications. Since the enactment of the NQI Act, researchers have made progress in quantum R&D. The authorization of funding for several federal R&D activities under the NQI Act is set to expire at the end of FY2023. In the NQI Act, Congress defined the term quantum information science as “the use of the laws of quantum physics for the storage, transmission, manipulation, computing, or measurement of information.”
Quantum computing, one of technology applications of quantum information science, uses a quantum bit, or qubit, as its basic data unit, to harness quantum properties such as superposition and entanglement. By generating and manipulating qubits, a quantum computer is capable of performing certain calculations significantly faster than conventional, non-quantum computers, known as classical computers, leading to new ways to solve some complex problems that were previously unsolvable. Researchers have demonstrated the potential for quantum computing applications in areas such as cryptography, machine learning, and scientific and engineering research, particularly using modeling, optimization, and simulation.