Three years of UBS Evidence Lab surveys reveal that Chinese parents across...
2019-12-31 27 ENGLISH REPORTS
India, Pakistan and Viet Nam) the ratio is below 92%, and in China the ratio is as low as 88.5%. These examples underscore the issue of “missing women” and gender-specifc gaps on access to healthcare. In most other countries, however, gender parity on sex ratio at birth has been nearly achieved: in 128 countries, the share of girls is at the natural 94% birth level, and in almost all other countries is above 92%. Parity has also been essentially achieved in all countries in terms of life expectancy. Women tend to live longer in all countries, except Kuwait, Bhutan and Bahrain, where the ratio is above 99%. An overview of the global distribution of subindex performances described above is presented in Figure 4. It illustrates the range of country scores for the four subindexes. The population-weighted average for each subindex is represented with diamonds. Countries’ performances are distributed unevenly among the gender gap index and the underlying subindexes. Overall, gender gap scores are clustered around the average score (69%), with a greater concentration of countries slightly above the average.
The distribution is much more dispersed within the Economic Opportunity and Participation subindex, where country scores range between 23% and 85%, and most countries score somewhat above the global population-weighted average. The fact that populous countries such as India and Mexico perform below average contributes to reducing the global average result. The distribution of scores on the Educational Attainment subindex ranges from 59% to 100%. On the Health and Survival subindex countries cluster around an even more concentrated set of values between 93% and 98%, with few outliers performing below 96%. The Political Empowerment subindex is the area where country performance is the most diverse and varied, with scores between 0% and 70%, and a stronger concentration towards the lower half of the distribution.Since 2006, the Global Gender Gap Report has tracked progress in closing gender gaps. Each year, the rate of change can estimate the time required to close the divide between women and men in employment, education, health and politics. Figure 5 charts the evolution of the Global Gender Gap Index and its subindexes since the report’s frst edition in 2006. Overall, the gender gap has reduced by 0.6 percentage points since 2018 and by a compounded 4 percentage points since 2006 (or an average of almost 0.3 points a year). All things being equal, with current trends, the overall global gender gap can be closed in 99.5 years. This is almost 10 years less than reported in the last edition and is mainly driven by faster progress in the political empowerment dimension.
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