To date, China remains the second largest source of unicorns (c...
2020-05-28 2 ENGLISH REPORTS
Most countries have closed all their schools, while others have closed part of their systems. In the absence of efective mitigation programs—for example, distance-learning programs and nutritional supports—the school closures will have many detrimental impacts on children and youth. Some of these impacts will be exacerbated by social distancing policies, which could prevent students from benefting from community or other sources of support. Learning impacts For most children and youth, academic learning will come to a halt. As of April 24, 2020, schools have closed in 180 countries, with many countries announcing extension of closures through the end of April or May.10 In the Northern Hemisphere, in many systems classes are fnished for the year, and in the Southern Hemisphere uncertainty is high. Tese school closures are afecting approximately 85 percent of the world’s student population.11 Even though students in many low- and middle-income countries learn far less per year of schooling than in the highest-performing countries, learning does take place in even the poorer-performing systems. One indication of this is the signifcant learning loss that students ordinarily experience during school breaks, for example among early-grade students in Malawi.12 Moreover, the time out of school can actually lead to learning losses that continue to accumulate after schools reopen. In the four years after a 2005 earthquake in Pakistan that closed schools for about 3 months, students who had lived closest to the fault line lost learning equivalent to 1.5 to 2 years of schooling.
In tertiary education, too, academic and research activities have basically come to a halt. As of April 8, universities and other tertiary education institutions are closed in 175 countries and communities, and over 220 million postsecondary students have had their studies ended or signifcantly disrupted due to COVID-19. Early childhood education and foundational learning in early primary school, in particular, are likely to be negatively impacted. As most households and education systems will prioritize continued learning for older children while schools are closed, emphasis on early childhood education may decline. Tis may also be because children at this age (0–8 years) are less able to independently take advantage of remotelearning programs and tools. Tis period of child development and initial instruction for literacy and numeracy is essential for the development of foundational learning skills on which all future learning rests. Student learning is cumulative: if they fail to acquire foundational skills in early grades, children may fnd it much more difcult to learn later.15 Hence a crisis-driven weakening of early childhood development and foundational learning in early primary school will mean lower learning trajectories for a whole generation. Stress caused by the crisis could compound these learning problems: stress hormones can disrupt early brain development and cause longterm damaging efects on learning, behavior, and health.
标签： ENGLISH REPORTS