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【英文】世界银行报告:新冠疫情大流行对教育和政策反应的冲击(49页)

英文研究报告 2020-05-28 2 管理员

Most countries have closed all their schools,  while others have closed part of their systems. In  the absence of efective mitigation programs—for  example, distance-learning programs and nutritional supports—the school closures will have many  detrimental impacts on children and youth. Some  of these impacts will be exacerbated by social distancing policies, which could prevent students from  benefting from community or other sources of  support. Learning impacts  For most children and youth, academic learning  will come to a halt. As of April 24, 2020, schools  have closed in 180 countries, with many countries  announcing extension of closures through the end  of April or May.10 In the Northern Hemisphere, in  many systems classes are fnished for the year, and  in the Southern Hemisphere uncertainty is high. Tese school closures are afecting approximately  85 percent of the world’s student population.11 Even  though students in many low- and middle-income  countries learn far less per year of schooling than  in the highest-performing countries, learning does  take place in even the poorer-performing systems.  One indication of this is the signifcant learning loss  that students ordinarily experience during school  breaks, for example among early-grade students in  Malawi.12 Moreover, the time out of school can actually lead to learning losses that continue to accumulate after schools reopen. In the four years after  a 2005 earthquake in Pakistan that closed schools  for about 3 months, students who had lived closest  to the fault line lost learning equivalent to 1.5 to 2  years of schooling.

In tertiary education, too, academic and research  activities have basically come to a halt. As of April  8, universities and other tertiary education institutions are closed in 175 countries and communities,  and over 220 million postsecondary students have  had their studies ended or signifcantly disrupted due  to COVID-19. Early childhood education and foundational learning in early primary school, in particular, are likely  to be negatively impacted. As most households and  education systems will prioritize continued learning  for older children while schools are closed, emphasis  on early childhood education may decline. Tis may  also be because children at this age (0–8 years) are  less able to independently take advantage of remotelearning programs and tools. Tis period of child  development and initial instruction for literacy and  numeracy is essential for the development of foundational learning skills on which all future learning rests. Student learning is cumulative: if they fail  to acquire foundational skills in early grades, children may fnd it much more difcult to learn later.15 Hence a crisis-driven weakening of early childhood  development and foundational learning in early primary school will mean lower learning trajectories for  a whole generation. Stress caused by the crisis could  compound these learning problems: stress hormones  can disrupt early brain development and cause longterm damaging efects on learning, behavior, and  health.

【英文】世界银行报告:新冠疫情大流行对教育和政策反应的冲击(49页)

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资源名称:【英文】世界银行报告:新冠疫情大流行对教育和政策反应的冲击(49页)


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