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【英文】兰德办公:21世纪的经济竞争攸关美国军事力量(79页)

英文研究报告 2020-08-05 1 管理员

U.S. foreign policy is being built around a fundamental assumption that the United States  faces growing competition around the world. This competition is occurring in the political and  military realms, but also in the economic realm—a realm of direct and indirect relevance to the  strength of the U.S. armed forces and the global security environment. This report discusses  economic competition from a number of different perspectives. These include ideas about  national competitiveness, competition for markets and investment, the use of economic tools in  other realms of competition, economic warfare, and competition over the nature of the global  economic system. These different perspectives may be placed in two broad groups: competition  as outcome and competition as action.  Competition involves two or more parties contending for some scarce goal with the outcome  being that one of the parties will enhance its power or influence relative to another. This report,  and the RAND Corporation project on Strategic Competition of which it is a part, have adopted  the following broad definition of competition: Competition in the international realm involves  the attempt to gain advantage, often relative to others believed to pose a challenge or threat,  through the self-interested pursuit of contested goods such as power, security, wealth, influence,  and status. 

Research for this report was concluded in October 2019.  Strategic Competition in Economics  The idea of strategic competition among nations is embedded in a long-running debate among  economists about competitiveness. The issue enters into the realm of strategic competition among  nations because one view holds that competitiveness relates to the global market position of a  national industry. In the United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s, this pertained largely to  the global position of high-technology industries.  For most economists, national economic competitiveness is now taken to mean the ability  to spur increases in productivity and standards of living, with a focus on domestic economic  policies, and can be considered competition as outcome; all nations can institute policies to  increase productivity and standards of living, such as by improving educational systems, without  directly affecting each other. However, there is disagreement about the idea of global technology  leadership and the proper role, if any, of government action to encourage that. Such disagreements focus on which institutions, policies, and factors governments should support, ranging from  support for broadly beneficial institutions and policies to support for specific technologies or  economic sectors.

【英文】兰德办公:21世纪的经济竞争攸关美国军事力量(79页)

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