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【英文】兰德报告:中国21世纪的创新倾向(168页)

英文研究报告 2020年12月16日 06:05 1 管理员

China as well as the “gray” literature found in journalism in print and online, the general literature on innovation and national innovation systems, sectoral case studies developed during  our research, as well as several experiments in measurement. Because of the disparate nature  of these sources and the number of factors that contribute to innovation, we first developed  a conceptual framework, shown in Table S.1, as an intellectual accounting system for factors  affecting both innovation potential and innovation propensity. As such, it is intended to be  populated with the main elements of China’s system for generating innovation, both “apples  and oranges.” That is, innovation assets, actors in organizations, and system characteristics and  dynamics at various scales and venues may cohabit within individual matrix cells. 

The columns represent several different venues or levels within which actors make decisions  affecting innovative activities, either their own or by others: the firm, the market, networks for  nonmarket exchange of ideas and support, local authorities,1  and national authorities. The  rows of the matrix in Table S.1 represent the main factors that arise from analysis of innovation. We divide them into three main themes that then map across the venues. Institutions describe the framework of organizations and norms for innovation operating in each venue. Processes of innovation take place within and between these organizations. Precursors are inputs  into innovation processes, their raw material. Taken together, the full framework maps the “operating system” for innovation. It is a convenient shorthand to first house the heterogeneous evidence providing clues to that operating system and then, later, identify those elements that  might provide indicators of innovation propensity.

【英文】兰德报告:中国21世纪的创新倾向(168页)

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