2020-12-15 2 ENGLISH REPORTS
China as well as the “gray” literature found in journalism in print and online, the general literature on innovation and national innovation systems, sectoral case studies developed during our research, as well as several experiments in measurement. Because of the disparate nature of these sources and the number of factors that contribute to innovation, we first developed a conceptual framework, shown in Table S.1, as an intellectual accounting system for factors affecting both innovation potential and innovation propensity. As such, it is intended to be populated with the main elements of China’s system for generating innovation, both “apples and oranges.” That is, innovation assets, actors in organizations, and system characteristics and dynamics at various scales and venues may cohabit within individual matrix cells.
The columns represent several different venues or levels within which actors make decisions affecting innovative activities, either their own or by others: the firm, the market, networks for nonmarket exchange of ideas and support, local authorities,1 and national authorities. The rows of the matrix in Table S.1 represent the main factors that arise from analysis of innovation. We divide them into three main themes that then map across the venues. Institutions describe the framework of organizations and norms for innovation operating in each venue. Processes of innovation take place within and between these organizations. Precursors are inputs into innovation processes, their raw material. Taken together, the full framework maps the “operating system” for innovation. It is a convenient shorthand to first house the heterogeneous evidence providing clues to that operating system and then, later, identify those elements that might provide indicators of innovation propensity.
标签： ENGLISH REPORTS